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Heralding Laser Spectroscopy

Dr. Denisa-Georgeta Popescu
Curriculum  Vitae

List of articles and their citations
Citations by Nobel Laureates
Damned impact factors


 

Last Name: POPESCU

First Name: DENISA-GEORGETA

Born: March 18, 1932, Braila, Romania, daughter of Elisa (b. Ionescu) and Ion Chiru

Married: August 10, 1963, to Ioan-Iovitz Popescu

Education:

• Bucharest University, the 5 years Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (1951).
• Institut für Experimentalphysik der Christian Albrecht Universität Kiel, Germany, postgraduate studies in Atomic and Plasma Spectroscopy with Prof. Walter Lochte-Holtgreven and Prof. Johannes Richter (February 1968-March 1969).
• Bucharest Institute of Physics of the Romanian Academy, Ph.D. (December 1970),  thesis Contributions to the Investigation of the Cesium Plasma in Thermionic Converters under the supervision of Acad. Prof. Eugen Badareu
• University of Texas at Dallas, Physics Faculty, research fellowship in Atomic and Molecular Multiphoton Spectroscopy, with Prof. Carl B. Collins, in the framework of the US - Romanian Project in Atomic and Plasma Physics (November 1972 - March 1973, and May 1975 - September 1975).

Career:

Bucharest Institute of Physics of the Romanian Academy and Institute of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, researcher (1959-1971), senior researcher and chief of the Laboratory of Laser Spectroscopy (1971-1984). Medical retirement (1984).

Main Achievements:

• 46 scientific publications on topics in gas discharges, plasma and laser spectroscopy, among which 16 papers in foreign international journals and cited in about 560 other publications.
• Original contributions in the physics of thermionic plasmas (1967) and absorption spectroscopy of excited atoms (1969).
• Introduced the optogalvanic effect as a new principle for laser spectroscopy by thermionic detection (1973), and radio-frequency detection (1980).
• First experimental evidence of multiphoton spectra of free atoms and molecules with tunable lasers (1973, 1974).
• Discovery of hybrid resonances and state-selective laser photolysis of molecules (1974). This two-photon process involving hybrid molecular-atomic resonances appears to be the most efficient for the production of highly excited Rydberg atoms.
• Introduction of photolytic spectroscopy (1980) capable to investigate in detail the predissociation of neutral molecules, the form of the repulsive potential curves and the atomic dissociation states.
• First demonstrations of the real possibilities of multiphoton spectroscopy (1973-1981) which initiated the growth of the field of laser spectroscopy by Excited-State Spectroscopy, Rydberg Spectroscopy, Two-Photon Doppler-Free Spectroscopy, Multiphoton Ionization Spectroscopy and Photolytic Spectroscopy.

Prizes and Honors:

• Third Olimpic Romanian Prize for Mathematics (1951)

• Physics Prize “C. Miculescu” of the Romanian Academy (1976) for her researches in atomic and molecular multiphoton spectroscopy

• Four times nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics (in 1981, 1995, 1996, and 1997) for her experimental discovery of atomic multiphoton spectra. The seminal paper in which the first atomic two-photon absorption spectrum (Doppler-broadened) was reported is (see position 06 on the paper list below): Multiphoton Excitation and Ionization of Atomic Cesium with a Tunable Dye Laser, by Denisa Popescu, C.B.Collins, B.W.Johnson, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Physical Review A, vol. 9, 1182-1187 (received 16 April 1973, published March 1974). As often happens, this original discovery was eclipsed in a matter of months by the report on Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectra, a dramatic improvement in resolution, using two counter-propagating laser beams, reported in letter-type journals. However, if the receipt dates of the publications are compared, it can be seen that the former discovery preceded the widely respected improvement by almost a year, as it results from the following chronology of the competing articles:
(i) D. Pritchard, J. Apt, and T. W. Ducas, Fine structure of Na 4d 2D using high-resolution two-photon spectroscopy, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 32, 641-642 (received 23 January 1974, published 25 March 1974);
(ii) F.Biraben, B.Cagnac, and G.Grynberg, Experimental evidence of two-photon transition without Doppler broadening, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.32, 643-645 (received 28 January 1974, published 25 March 1974);
(iii) M.D.Levenson and N. Bloembergen (1981 Nobel Laureate for laser spectroscopy), Observation of two-photon absorption without Doppler broadening on the 3S-5S transition of sodium vapor, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.32, 645-648 (received 4 February 1974, published 25 March 1974);
(iv) T.W.Hänsch, K.C.Harvey, G.Meisel, and A. L. Schawlow (1981 Nobel Laureate for laser spectroscopy), Two-photon spectroscopy of Na 3S-4D without Doppler broadening using a cw dye laser, Opt. Commun., vol.11, 50-53 (received 26 February 1974, published May 1974);
(v) T.W.Hänsch, A.L.Schawlow (1981 Nobel Laureate for laser spectroscopy), Cooling of gases by laser radiation, Opt. Commun., vol. 13, 68-69 (received 20 October 1974, published January 1975).

Address:

Mail: Str. Fizicienilor 6, bloc M4, ap. 6
76900 Bucharest-Magurele, Romania
Website: http://www.iipopescu.com
Email: iovitzu@gmail.com
 
 

LIST OF ARTICLES AND THEIR CITATIONS
(updated April 2001)

NOTE: About 560 citations are listed and yellow typed with an average rate of about 40 cites per major article. Citing articles are referenced by first-author and abbreviated title.

CONTENTS:

Papers in foreign international journals: 16 articles
Papers in Romanian Academy journals: 13 articles
International conference proceedings: 17 articles
List of foreign citing books
 
 

PAPERS IN FOREIGN INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS




01. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE CAESIUM THERMIONIC CONVERTER WITH AN AUXILIARY DISCHARGE, E.Badareu, G.Musa, and Denisa Popescu, British Journal of Applied Physics, 16, 845-850 (1965)

02. ON THE LOW VOLTAGE ARC IN CESIUM VAPORS, I.-Iovitz Popescu and Denisa Popescu, Annalen der Physik (Leipzig), 19, 50-63 (1967)

5 citations:

Jermokhin, N.V., Proc.IX Int.Conf.Phen.Ion.Gas., 410 (1969)
Fuchs G., Ann.Phys.(Leipzig), vol.26, 49 (1971)
Fuchs G., Ann.Phys.(Leipzig), vol.26, 157 (1971)
Kulik V.Y., High Temp.(russ.), vol.10, 715 (1972)
Babanin V.I., Zh.Tekh.Phys.(USSR), vol.43, 1916 (1973)

03. ABSORPTIONSSPEKTROSKOPIE ANGEREGTER CÄSIUM-ATOME (ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXCITED CESIUM ATOM), Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, and J.Richter, Zeitschrift für Physik, 226, 160-174 (1969)

31 citations:

Niemax K., Absorption measurements by excited Rb atoms (Germ.) , Diplomarbeit, Univ. Kiel, Germany (1969)
Popescu D., Two-photon ionization of Cs2 molecule, Rev. Roum. Phys., vol. 15, 859 (1970)
Niemax K., Measurement of CsI satellites (Germ.), Ph.D.Thesis, University of Kiel, Germany (1972)
Niemax K., Satellites of CsI lines, Phys.Lett. A, vol. 38, 141 (1972)
Duong H.T., Photoionization detection of Rydberg levels nF in Na, Opt.Comm., vol. 22, 79 (1977)
Pascu M.L., Optical study of molecular-ions in plasma (Roum.), Stud. Cerc. Fiz., vol. 29, 363-401 (1977)
Niemax K., Doppler-free spectroscopy with a thermionic detector, J.Phys. B, Lett., vol. 11, L267 (1978)
Weber K.H., Self-broadening of Doppler-free two-photon lines of Cs, Opt.Comm., vol. 28, 317 (1979)
Lorenzen C.J., Energies of the n2S1/2 and n2D3/2,5/2 states of Cs, Opt.Commun, vol. 33, 271 (1980)
CIAMDA, Computer Index to Atomic and Molecular Collision Data, IAEA, Vienna, Ref. No. 12683 (1980)
Niemax K., Doppler-Free Lines with Thermionic Diode, in Spectral Line Shapes, W. de Gruyter (1981)
Feneuille S., Atomic Rydberg States, Adv. Atom. Mol. Phys., vol. 17, 99-166 (1981)
O C.- S., Cs principal-series doublet oscillator-strength ratios, J.Opt.Soc.Am., vol. 71, 1072 (1981)
Niemax K., Laser spectroscopy with the thermionic diode, Acta Phys.Pol. A., vol. 61, 517-529 (1982)
Niemax K., The thermionic diode, in The Physics of Ionized Gases, SPIG-82, Univ. Zagreb, (1982)
Richter J., Thermionic diode – laser spectroscopy, Trends in Quant.El., Bucharest, vol. 2, 375-394 (1983)
Camus P., Bibliography of OG spectroscopy, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 513-530 (1983)
Niemax K., The ionization of Rb n2Pj atoms by noble-gas collisions, Appl.Phys. B, vol. 32, 59 (1983)
Niemax K., The thermionic double-diode – laser spectroscopy, Opt.Commun, vol. 44, 165 (1983)
O’Sullivan M.S., Doppler-free two-photon absorption-spectrum of Cs, Can.J.Phys., vol. 61, 940 (1983)
Herrmann P.P., Doppler-free spectroscopy of the 8S state of Cs, Opt.Comm., vol. 56, 22 (1985)
Hoffnagle J., Thermionic diode with internal Franck-Hertz effect, Opt.Comm., vol. 55, 325 (1985)
Niemax K., Spectroscopy of low-pressure elements (thermionic diode), Appl.Phys. B, vol. 36, 177 (1985)
Niemax K, Spectroscopy using thermionic diode detectors, Appl.Phys. B, vol. 38, 147-157 (1985)
Herrmann P.P., Collisional ionization of highly excited states of Cs, J.Phys. B, vol.19, 1675 (1986)
Ochkin V.S., OG effect in a plasma and gas (Russ.), Usp.Fiz.Nauk, vol. 148, 473-507 (1986)
Toader E.I., The OG effect in plasma, Rev.Roum.Phys., vol. 32, 1059 (1987)
Beigang R., Rydberg spectroscopy of alkaline-earth elements, J.Opt.Soc.Am. B, vol. 5, 2423 (1988)
Herrmann P.P., Long thermionic diodes, Rev.Sci.Instr., vol. 62, 609-623 (1991)
Gu S.H., The measurements of n2D levels and fine-structure of Cs, Zs.Phys. D, vol. 25, 131 (1993)
Kudryavtsev Y., Beams of short lived nuclei, Nucl. Instr. Methods B, vol. 114, 350-365 (1996)

04. USE OF SPACE CHARGE AMPLIFICATION TECHNIQUES IN THE ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF Cs and Cs2 , Denisa Popescu, M.L.Pascu, C.B.Collins, B.W.Johnson, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Physical Review A, 8, 1666-1672 (1973)

68 citations:

Chang T.N., Influence of electronic correlation on photoionization (Na, K), J.Phys. B, vol. 8, 743 (1975)
Nygaard K.J., Photoionization of 6 2P3/2,1/2 fine-structure levels in Cs, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 12, 1440 (1975)
Cook T.B., Photoionization cross-section for Cs atoms, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 15, 1526 (1976)
Green R.B., Galvanic detection of optical absorptions, Appl.Phys.Lett., vol. 29, 727 (1976)
Bloembergen N., Doppler-Free Spectroscopy, in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Springer (1976)
Esherick P., Multiphoton Ionization of the Alkaline Earths, in Laser Spectroscopy III, Springer (1977)
Wynne J.J., Proc. Int. Conf. on Multiphoton Processes, Rochester 1977, p. 217, Wiley (1978)
Ferguson A.I., Detection of Rydberg states of Rb, Opt.Comm., vol. 23, 227 (1977)
Toader E.I., Molecular satellites of 62S-72P doublet of Cs, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 16, 1490 (1977)
Pascu M.L., Optical study of molecular-ions in plasma (Roum.), Stud. Cerc. Fiz., vol. 29, 363-401 (1977)
Aymar M., Spectroscopy of neutral Ba - highly excited levels, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 18, 2173 (1978)
Bridges W.B., Opto-galvanic effect in Cs and plasmas, J.Opt.Soc.Am., vol. 68, 352 (1978)
Fonck R.J., Quasi Landau spectrum at ionization threshold, Phys.Rev.Lett., vol.40, 1366(1978)
Mirza M.Y., Energy-levels for highly excited 2F states in Cs, J.Phys. B, vol. 11, 1917 (1978)
Pepper D.M., OG effect in discharge plasmas, IEEE J.Q.E., vol. 14, 971 (1978)
Salour M.M., Two-photon spectroscopy in vapors, Ann.Phys.(NY), vol. 111, 364-503 (1978)
Chellehmalzadeh M.A., Laser spectroscopy of CsAr and CsKr, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 19, 2270 (1979)
Koch E.M., Multi-photon absorption in Li vapor, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 19, 1098 (1979)
Sternheimer R.M., Excited-state atomic-energy levels, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 19, 474 (1979)
Zimmerman M.L., Stark structure of Rydberg states of alkali, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 20, 2251-2275 (1979)
Bobulescu R.C., A N2 pumped dye-laser setting up, Rev. Roum. Phys., vol. 24, 305 (1979)
Toader E.I., 62S1/2-72P1/2, 3/2 Cs lines in a two-photon process, Rev. Roum. Phys., vol. 24, 453 (1979)
Camus P., Highly excited-levels of neutral Yb, J.Phys. B, vol. 13, 1073 (1980)
Chang T.N., Highly excited Rydberg states of alkali atoms, J.Phys. B, vol. 13, 1307 (1980)
Fonck R.J., Quasi-Landau spectrum, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 21, 861 (1980)
CIAMDA, Computer Index to Atomic and Molecular Collision Data, IAEA, Vienna, Ref. No. 9839 (1980)
Giacobino E., Doppler-Free Multiphoton Spectroscopy, in Progress in Optics, North-Holland (1980)
Sternheimer R.M., Trans.New York Acad.Sci., vol. 40, 190 (1980)
Travis J.C., The OG Effect, in Lasers in Chemical Analysis, Humana Press (1981)
Chichkov B.N., Dipole transitions in atoms and ions, Phys.Scr., vol. 23, 1055 (1981)
Feneuille S., Atomic Rydberg States, Adv. Atom. Mol. Phys., vol. 17, 99-166 (1981)
Goldsmith J.E.M., OG spectroscopy, Contemp.Phys., vol. 22, 235-248 (1981)
Harvey K.C., Thermionic diode detector for precision spectroscopy, Rev.Sci.Instr., vol. 52, 204 (1981)
Stoicheff B.P., High Rydberg States, in Spectral Line Shapes, W. de Gruyter, Berlin (1981)
Beterov I.M., OG demonstration of dissociative electron-capture in I2 , Opt.Comm., vol. 40, 425 (1982)
Davanloo F., Photolytic spectroscopy. 4. Cs2, Cs2Kr, and CsKr, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 77, 5455 (1982)
Pascu M.L., Rubidium atomic absorption data using tunable dye lasers, Rev.Roum.Phys., vol. 27, 659 (1982)
Richter J., Thermionic diode – laser spectroscopy, Trends in Quant.El., Bucharest, vol. 2, 375-394 (1983)
Alkemade C.T.J., Atomic physics and atomic spectroscopy, Spectrochim.Acta B, vol. 38, 1395-1409 (1983)
Beterov I.M., OG effects in I2 , Opt.Spektrosk., vol. 54, 978 (1983)
Camus P., Atomic spectroscopy with OG detection, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 87-106 (1983)
Collins C.B., Molecular-spectroscopy with OG detection, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 395-409 (1983)
Camus P., Bibliography of OG spectroscopy, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 513-530 (1983)
Niemax K., The thermionic double-diode – laser spectroscopy, Opt.Commun, vol. 44, 165 (1983)
Suemitsu H., Relative photo-ionization of Cs, Cs2, Rb, and Rb2 , Phys.Rev. A, vol. 28, 2752 (1983)
Rothe E.W., Effect of laser-light upon a charge-exchange source, Appl.Phys.B, vol.35, 233 (1984)
Cagnac B., Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy, Hyper.Inter., vol. 24, 19-41 (1985)
Davanloo F., Photolytic spectroscopy. 5. Photolysis of Cs2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 82, 4965 (1985)
Hoffnagle J., Thermionic diode detector with internal Franck-Hertz effect, Opt.Comm., vol. 55, 325 (1985)
Isenberg E.M., Photoionization and resonance structure of Na, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 32, 1472 (1985)
Niemax K, Spectroscopy using thermionic diode detectors, Appl.Phys. B, vol. 38, 147-157 (1985)
Herrmann P.P., Collisional ionization of highly excited states of Cs, J.Phys. B, vol.19, 1675 (1986)
Ochkin V.S., OG effect in a plasma and gas (Russ.), Usp.Fiz.Nauk, vol. 148, 473-507 (1986)
Švedas V., Highly excited atoms as a source of coherent radiation, Rev.Roum.Phys., vol. 31, 933 (1986)
Balz J.G., Optical double-resonance and multiphoton ionization in Li2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 86, 1 (1987)
Cagnac B., Doppler-free multiphoton spectroscopy in hydrogen, Hyper.Inter., vol. 38, 501 (1987)
Toader E.I., The OG effect in plasma, Rev.Roum.Phys., vol. 32, 1059 (1987)
Sterian P.E., Lasers and multiphoton processes (Roum.), Editura Tehnica, Bucharest (1988)
Švedas V., Ionization of excited Cs atoms in collisions with Cs(6S), J.Phys. B, vol. 21, 301 (1988)
Demtröder W., Laser Spectroscopy, Springer, Berlin (1988)
Strat M., Spectroscopy and lasers (Roum.), Tipografia Univ. "Al. I. Cuza" Iasi (1988)
Cagnac B., Doppler-Free Multiphoton Spectroscopy, in Lasers – Phys. and Appl., World Scientific (1989)
Kischkel C.S., Two-photon spectroscopy in neutral Yb, J.Phys. B, vol. 24, 4845-4862 (1991)
Tsai C.C., Shielded cylindrical diode ionization detector, Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 63, 5576 (1992)
Cagnac B., The hydrogen-atom, a tool for metrology, Rep. Prog. Phys., vol. 57, 853-893 (1994)
Lynds L., Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of Y-89, J. Appl. Phys., vol. 79, 565 (1996)
Bhatti S.A., Spectral line shapes in a thermionic diode detector, Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 7, 1038 (1996)
Uchtmann H., Light-induced nucleation in Cs vapor, J. Chem. Phys., vol 113, 4171 (2000)

05. MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF MOLECULAR CESIUM WITH A TUNABLE DYE LASER, C.B.Collins, B.W.Johnson, Denisa Popescu, G.Musa, M.L.Pascu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Physical Review A, 8, 2197-2201 (1973)

48 citations:

Hänsch T.V., Two-photon spectroscopy of Na without Doppler broadening, Opt.Comm., vol. 11, 50 (1974)
Morgan C.G., Laser-induced breakdown of gases, Rep.Progr.Phys., vol. 38, 621 (1975)
Baravian G., Resonant multiphoton ionization of Ne, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 14, 761 (1976)
Richardson J.H., Spectroscopic properties of molecular-ions, Appl.Spectr.Rev., vol. 12, 159-211 (1976)
Walther H., in Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules, Springer, Berlin (1976)
Berry R.S., Two-Photon Processes, in Electron and Photon Interactions with Atoms, Plenum (1976)
Feldman D.L., Multiphoton ionization - molecular-beams, Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 52, 413 (1977)
Ferguson A.I., Rydberg states of Rb using a cw dye-laser, Opt.Comm., vol. 23, 227 (1977)
Shen N.M., Multiphoton excitation of K, Opt.Comm., vol. 20, 392 (1977)
Toader E.I., Molecular satellites of 62S-72P doublet of Cs, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 16, 1490 (1977)
Pascu M.L., Optical study of molecular-ions in plasma (Roum.), Stud. Cerc. Fiz., vol. 29, 363-401 (1977)
Lehmann K.K., Multi-photon resonance ionization bands in I2, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 69, 1569 (1978)
Lompré L.A., Resonant multi-photon ionization of Cs at 1.06 ?m, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 39, 610 (1978)
Morgan C.G., Laser-Induced Breakdown, in Electrical Brekdown of Gases, Wiley & Sons (1978)
Niemax K., Doppler-free spectroscopy with a thermionic detector, J.Phys. B, Lett., vol. 11, L267 (1978)
Chellehmalzadeh M.A., Laser spectroscopy of CsAr and CsKr, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 19, 2270 (1979)
Koch E.M., Multi-photon absorption in Li vapor, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 19, 1098 (1979)
Koch E.M., Bound-free-bound triplet absorption-bands in Li2 , Phys.Rev.Lett, vol. 42, 1052 (1979)
Krogh-Jespersen K., Two-photon ionization spectrum in toluene, Chem.Phys., vol. 44, 295 (1979)
Lompré L.A., Ph.D. Thesis (French), Univ. Paris-Sud (1979)
Toader E.I., 62S1/2-72P1/2, 3/2 Cs lines in a two-photon process, Rev. Roum. Phys., vol. 24, 453 (1979)
Friedrich D.M., Two-photon molecular spectroscopy, Ann.Rev.Phys.Chem., vol. 31, 559-577 (1980)
Ito M., Multi-photon spectroscopy, Appl.Spectr.Rev., vol. 16, 299-352 (1980)
Johnson P.M., Molecular multi-photon ionization spectroscopy, Acc. Chem.Res., vol. 13, 20 (1980)
Stwalley W.C., Alkali-metal vapors - laser spectroscopy, Opt.Eng., vol. 19, 71-84 (1980)
De Vries M.S., Multi-photon ionization translational spectroscopy of I2, Chem.Phys., vol. 56, 157 (1981)
Tam A.C., Plasma formation in alkali vapors by laser excitation, ACS Symp., vol. 179, 447 (1982)
Thompson D.C., Characteristics of thermionic ionization detectors, Rev.Sci.Instr., vol. 53, 822 (1982)
Pascu M.L., Rubidium atomic absorption data using tunable dye lasers, Rev.Roum.Phys., vol. 27, 659 (1982)
Richter J., Thermionic diode – laser spectroscopy, Trends in Quant.El., Bucharest, vol. 2, 375-394 (1983)
Collins C.B., Molecular-spectroscopy with OG detection, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 395-409 (1983)
Camus P., Bibliography of OG spectroscopy, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 513-530 (1983)
Gobeli D.A., Multiphoton ionization, in Adv. Multiphoton Proc., vol. 1, 51-91, World Scientific (1984)
Miller J.C., Multiphoton Ionization, in Photophys. and Photochem., NATO ASIS, C142 (1985)
Ding D., Hybrid two-photon transitions in alkali-metal K vapor, Chin.Phys., vol. 5, 457 (1985)
Gobeli D.A., Laser multiphoton ionization mass-spectrometry, Chem.Rev., vol. 85, 529-554 (1985)
Landen O.L., Anomalous Cs 5D-5F lineshape in plasma, J.Quant.Spectr.& Rad.T., vol.34, 177 (1985)
Niemax K, Spectroscopy using thermionic diode detectors, Appl.Phys. B, vol. 38, 147-157 (1985)
Ochkin V.S., OG effect in a plasma and gas (Russ.), Usp.Fiz.Nauk, vol. 148, 473-507 (1986)
Tugov I.I., Nonlinear photo-processes in diatomic-molecules, Izv.AN SSSR, Fiz., vol. 50, 1148 (1986)
Sterian P.E., Lasers and multiphoton processes (Roum.), Editura Tehnica, Bucharest (1988)
Barbieri B., OG spectroscopy, Rev.Mod.Phys., vol. 62, 603-644 (1990)
Miller J.C., Multiphoton Ionization of Clusters, Proc.Int. Conf. Multiphoton Processes, Saclay (1990)
Telle H.H., OG spectroscopy of molecules and complexes Inst.Phys.Conf.Ser., n.113, 1-26 (1991)
Tsai C.C., Shielded cylindrical diode ionization detector, Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 63, 5576 (1992)
Suemitsu H., Multiphoton ionization of Cs2 in the range 620-670 nm, J.Phys.Soc.Jpn., vol.62, 3425 (1993)
Pratt S.T., Excited-state molecular photoionization, Rep. Prog. Phys., vol. 58, 821-883 (1995)
Miyazawa T., Non-resonant two-photon (NRTP) isomerization, Chem. Lett., n.12, 1023 (1996)

06. MULTIPHOTON EXCITATION AND IONIZATION OF ATOMIC CESIUM WITH A TUNABLE DYE LASER, Denisa Popescu, C.B.Collins, B.W.Johnson, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Physical Review A, 9, 1182-1187 (1974)

70 citations:

Pace P.W., Transfer of excitation between 72P1/2 and 72P3/2 states of Cs, Can.J.Phys., vol. 52, 1641 (1974)
Armstrong L., Resonant multiphoton ionization via Fano autoionization, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 12, 1903 (1975)
Beers B.L., Exact solution for two-photon ionization, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 12, 2447 (1975)
Delone N.B., Many-photon ionization of atoms (Russ.), Usp.Fiz.Nauk, vol. 115, 361-401 (1975)
Delone N.B., Two-level system in an intense light field (Russ.), Usp.Fiz.Nauk, vol. 117, 189-197 (1975)
Granneman E.H.A., Two-photon ionization of Cs by an Ar ion laser, J.Phys. B, vol. 8, 1617 (1975)
Lambropoulos M., Quadrupole transitions in multiphoton ionization, Phys.Rev.Lett., vol. 35, 159 (1975)
Rachman A., Momentum approximation and multiphoton ionization, J.Phys. B, vol. 8, 826 (1975)
Baravian G., Resonant multiphoton ionization of Ne, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 14, 761 (1976)
Esherick P., Multiphoton ionization of high-lying states in Ca, Phys.Rev.Lett., vol. 36, 1296 (1976)
Ewart P., Laser ionization spectroscopy of Rydberg levels, J.Phys. B, Letters, vol. 9, L437 (1976)
Martin E.A., Electron-energy spectrum in laser multiphoton ionization, Appl.Opt., vol. 15, 2378 (1976)
Shen Y.R., Recent advances in nonlinear optics, Rev.Mod.Phys., vol. 48, 1-32 (1976)
Walther H., in Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules, Springer, Berlin (1976)
Aron K., Multiphoton ionization spectrum of Xe, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 67, 5099 (1977)
Brincourt G., Multiphoton ionization of Cs through 9D3/2 level, J.Phys.Lett., vol. 38, L81 (1977)
Camus P., High-lying states in Ba by two-photon absorption, J.Phys. B, Lett., vol. 10, L133 (1977)
Dalby F.W., Nonlinear resonant photoionization spectra of I2 , Can.J.Phys., vol. 55, 1032 (1977)
Feldman D.L., Multiphoton ionization - molecular-beams, Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 52, 413 (1977)
Ferguson A.I., Detection of Rydberg states of Rb using a cw dye-laser, Opt.Comm., vol. 23, 227 (1977)
Lompré L.A., Tunable mode-locked Nd-glass laser, J.Appl.Phys., vol. 48, 1570 (1977)
Lompré L.A., Multiphoton ionization of rare-gases at 1.06 ?m, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 15, 1604 (1977)
Shen N.M., Multiphoton excitation of K, Opt.Comm., vol. 20, 392 (1977)
Iova I., Elements of applied optics (Roum.), Editura Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucharest (1977)
Toader E.I., Molecular satellites of 62S-72P doublet of Cs, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 16, 1490 (1977)
Prokhorov A.M., Preface, Proc. Int. Conf. on Multiphoton Processes, Rochester 1977, Wiley (1978)
Wynne J.J., Proc. Int. Conf. on Multiphoton Processes, Rochester 1977, p. 217, Wiley (1978)
Aymar M., Spectroscopy of neutral Ba - highly excited even levels, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 18, 2173 (1978)
Bjorklund G.C., Detection of H and D by three-photon ionization, Appl.Phys.Lett., vol. 33, 54 (1978)
Camus P., Two-photon absorption spectroscopy in Yb, J.Phys. B, Lett., vol. 11, L395 (1978)
Delone N.B., Resonance interaction of intense light with atoms (Russ.), Usp.Fiz.Nauk, vol. 124, 619-650 (1978)
Delone N.B., Atom in strong light field (Russ.), Atomizdat., Moskva (1978)
McDowell C.A., Perspectives in physical-chemistry, Pure Appl.Chem., vol. 50, 743-758 (1978)
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07. MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF CESIUM THROUGH RESONANT DISSOCIATIVE MOLECULAR STATES OF Cs2 , C.B.Collins, B.W.Johnson, M.Y.Mirza, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Physical Review A, 10, 813-821 (1974)

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08. DOUBLET LINE-STRENGTH RATIOS FOR THE PRINCIPAL SERIES OF CESIUM, Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, J.Maurer, C.B.Collins, and B.W.Johnson, Physical Review A, 12, 1425-1431 (1975)

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09. FINE-STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS OF TWO-PHOTON TRANSITIONS IN ATOMIC CESIUM WITH A TUNABLE DYE LASER, S.M.Curry, C.B.Collins, M.Y.Mirza, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Optics Communications, 16, 251-255 (1976). FINE AND HYPERFINE STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS OF TWO-PHOTON TRANSITIONS IN ATOMIC CESIUM WITH A TUNABLE DYE LASER, S.M.Curry, C.B.Collins, T.W.Hänsch, S.A.Lee, Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, and A.L.Schawlow (recipient Nobel Prize for Physics in 1981), Bull.Am.Phys.Soc., 19, 1198 (1974)

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10. MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF RUBIDIUM, C.B.Collins, S.M.Curry, B.W.Johnson, M.Y.Mirza, M.A.Chellehmalzadeh, J.A.Anderson, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Physical Review A, 14, 1662-1671 (1976)

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11. OPTICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY, C.Stanciulescu, R.Bobulescu, Ani Surmeian, Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, and C.B.Collins, Applied Physics Letters, 37, 888-890 (1980)

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Gherbanovschi N.N., Physical electronics (Roum.), Editura Academiei Romane, Bucharest (1994)
Piracha N.K., Two-photon OG Rydberg spectra of Ne, J. Phys. B., vol. 28, 2525 (1995)

12. TWO PHOTON TECHNIQUE FOR THE DISSOCIATIVE SPECTROSCOPY OF SIMPLE MOLECULES, C.B.Collins, J.A.Anderson, F.W.Lee, P.A.Vicharelli, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Physical Review Letters, 44, 139-142 (1980). MULTIPHOTON TECHNIQUE FOR DISSOCIATIVE SPECTROSCOPY OF SIMPLE MOLECULES, C.B.Collins, F.W.Lee, J.A.Anderson, P.A.Vicharelli, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu,  Jour. Optical Society of America, 70, 628 (1980)

16 citations:

Eberly J.H., Multiphoton Bibliography 1980, Univ. Colorado & Rochester, Ref. 16933, NBS LP-92 (1981)
Niemax K., Doppler-Free Lines with Thermionic Diode, in Spectral Line Shapes, W. de Gruyter (1981)
Davanloo F., Photolytic spectroscopy. 4. Cs2, Cs2Kr, and CsKr, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 77, 5455 (1982)
Raab M., High-resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2 . 2., J.Chem.Phys., vol. 76, 4370-4386 (1982)
Collins C.B., Molecular-spectroscopy with OG detection, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 395-409 (1983)
Camus P., Bibliography of OG spectroscopy, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 513-530 (1983)
Wu Z., Predissociation and depopulation of the Cs2 (E) state, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 81, 4433 (1984)
Davanloo F., Photolytic spectroscopy. 5. Photolysis of Cs2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 82, 4965 (1985)
Niemax K, Spectroscopy using thermionic diode detectors, Appl.Phys. B, vol. 38, 147-157 (1985)
Lombardi E., Separations in alkali-metal diatomic compounds, Phys.Rev. A, vol.33, 2907 (1986)
Amiot C., Fourier and laser spectroscopy of Cs2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 88, 5265-5281 (1988)
Amiot C., The Cs2 1?u electronic state pumped by Ar+ laser lines, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 89, 3993 (1988)
Ho J.J., Optically pumped spin orientation in Cs, J.Chem.Phys., vol.89, 2635 (1988)
Ho J.J., Collision-induced photodissociation of the 1?u state of Cs2, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 42, 4398 (1990)
Lee S., Predissociating resonances of Cs2 , Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem., vol. 101, 407 (1997)
Lee S., Asymmetry parameters for isolated resonances, J. Phys. B, vol. 33, 3441 (2000)

13. PHOTOLYTIC SPECTROSCOPY OF SIMPLE MOLECULES, PART I, THE PRODUCTION OF 52D ATOMS FROM Cs2 , C.B.Collins, J.A.Anderson, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Journal of Chemical Physics, 74, 1053-1066 (1981)

45 citations:

Morellec J., Laser photo-decomposition of Cs2 at 758 nm, J.Phys.B, vol. 14, 3919 (1981)
Compton R.N., Multi-photon ionization of atoms and molecules, AIP Conf. Proc., iss. 90, 319 (1982)
Davanloo F., Photolytic spectroscopy. 4. Cs2, Cs2Kr, and CsKr, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 77, 5455 (1982)
Niemax K., Laser spectroscopy with the thermionic diode, Acta Phys.Pol. A., vol. 61, 517-529 (1982)
Raab M., High-resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2 . 2., J.Chem.Phys., vol. 76, 4370-4386 (1982)
Collins C.B., Molecular-spectroscopy with OG detection, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 395-409 (1983)
Camus P., Bibliography of OG spectroscopy, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 513-530 (1983)
Moore L.J., Isotopic selectivity in ultrasensitive RIMS, Proc.Soc.Photo., vol. 426, 18 (1983)
Amiot C., Ar+ laser-induced fluorescence-spectra of Cs2 , J.Mol.Spectr., vol. 107, 28-47 (1984)
Christian W., Near-infrared multiphoton ionization of Cs, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 30, 1775 (1984)
Wu Z., Predissociation and depopulation of the Cs2 (E) state, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 81, 4433 (1984)
Miller J.C., Multiphoton Ionization, in Photophys. and Photochem., NATO ASIS, C142 (1985)
Balz J.G., Collision-induced photodissociation of Li2 , Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 115, 353 (1985)
Compton R.N., Two-color multiphoton ionization of Xe, J.Opt.Soc.Am. B, vol. 2, 355 (1985)
Davanloo F., Photolytic spectroscopy. 5. photolysis of Cs2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 82, 4965 (1985)
Naqvi A.S., OG spectroscopy of two-photon dissociation of Tl2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 82, 2217 (1985)
Niemax K, Spectroscopy using thermionic diode detectors, Appl.Phys. B, vol. 38, 147-157 (1985)
Pratt S.T., Predissociation and ionization of excited KrXe, Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 116, 245 (1985)
Zhang J.Y., Chin. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, 17 (1986)
Zhao L.Z., Two-photon resonant four-wave-mixing in Mg vapor, Opt.Comm., vol. 58, 281 (1986)
Harris A.L., Nanosecond IR tunable pulses by stimulated Raman-scattering, Appl.Opt., vol. 26, 3996 (1987)
Amiot C., High-resolution Fourier and laser spectroscopy of Cs2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 88, 5265-5281 (1988)
Amiot C., The Cs2 1?u electronic state pumped by Ar+ laser lines, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 89, 3993 (1988)
Clark B.K., Wave mixing and amplified emission in K and Na-K vapors, Appl.Phys. B, vol. 47, 159 (1988)
Yokoyama K., A study of the D1?u - X1?g band system of Cs2, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 89, 1209 (1988)
Demtröder W., High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Physics of Ionized Gases, Nova Science (1989)
Bieniak B., Decay of Cs2 excited by blue laser-light pulses, Acta Phys.Pol. A., vol. 78, 305 (1990)
Ho J.J., Collision-induced photodissociation of the 1?u state of Cs2, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 42, 4398 (1990)
Suemitsu H., Two-photon ionization of Cs2 in the range 530-620 nm, J.Phys.Soc.Jpn, vol. 59, 1981 (1990)
Wu D.H., Resonance ionization spectra of a Ba2 excimer, Chin.Phys., vol. 10, 181 (1990)
Bieniak B., Lifetime of Cs2 excited by laser-pulses at 476.5 nm, Phys.Lett. A, vol. 152, 47 (1991)
Diemer U., Infrared Cs laser based on optical-pumping of Cs2 , Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 176, 135 (1991)
Bouchiat M.A., From linear amplification to superradiance, J.Phys. II (Paris), vol. 2, 727-747 (1992)
Sasso A., Radiative lifetimes and quenching of Cs 5Dj levels, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 45, 1670 (1992)
Naqvi A.S., Hybrid transitions in Na2 by laser-absorption spectroscopy, Opt.Comm., vol. 87, 36 (1992)
Bouchiat M.A., Photoionization of Cs and photodissociation of Cs2 , Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 199, 85 (1992)
Bouchiat M.A., Photodissoc. of Cs2 and photoioniz. of 5D5/2 atoms, Zs.Phys. D, vol. 25, 145 (1993)
Bouchiat C., Two-photon ionization of Cs2 around 540 nm, Zs.Phys. D, vol. 27, 333 (1993)
Bouchiat M.A., Laser Cs photoionization and charge separation, Opt.Comm., vol.104, 157 (1993)
Kim B.S., Cs2 studied in a very cold molecular-beam, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 98, 5990 (1993)
Kim B.S., The 2 3?u state of Cs2 in a very cold molecular-beam, J. Chem. Phys., vol. 99, 5677 (1993)
Bieniak B., Spectral studies of green Cs2 fluorescence, Acta Phys. Pol. A, vol. 84, 229-246 (1993)
Clark B.K., Coherent emissions in K vapor via hybrid pump transitions, Opt. Comm., vol. 108, 121 (1994)
Kato H., Dynamics of excited molecules - predissociation, Chem. Rev., vol. 95, 2311-2349 (1995)
Sitnikov M.G., Stimulated IR emission in optically pumped Cs vapour, Quant. El., vol. 30, 221 (2000)

14. PHOTOLYTIC SPECTROSCOPY OF SIMPLE MOLECULES, PART II, THE PRODUCTION OF 6P ATOMS FROM THE X1?g STATE OF Cs2 , C.B.Collins, F.W.Lee, J.A.Anderson, P.A.Vicharelli, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Journal of Chemical Physics, 74, 1067-1073 (1981)

56 citations:

Raab M., Double-Resonance Polarization Spectroscopy of Cs2 , in Laser Spectroscopy V, Springer, (1981)
Morellec J., Laser photo-decomposition of Cs2 at the wavelength 758 nm, J.Phys.B, vol. 14, 3919 (1981)
Davanloo F., Photolytic spectroscopy. 4. Cs2, Cs2Kr, and CsKr, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 77, 5455 (1982)
Janson M.L., Photo-dissociation of Na2 and K2 , J.Phys. B, vol. 15, 4175-4197 (1982)
Niemax K., Laser spectroscopy with the thermionic diode, Acta Phys.Pol. A., vol. 61, 517-529 (1982)
Raab M., The dissociation-energy of the Cs2 , Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 88, 377 (1982)
Raab M., High-resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2 . 2., J.Chem.Phys., vol. 76, 4370-4386 (1982)
Collins C.B., Molecular-spectroscopy with OG detection, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 395-409 (1983)
Camus P., Bibliography of OG spectroscopy, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 513-530 (1983)
Amiot C., Ar+ laser-induced fluorescence-spectra of Cs2 , J.Mol.Spectr., vol. 107, 28-47 (1984)
Harris A.L., Stimulated Raman-scattering from Cs 6S-5D transition, Opt.Lett., vol. 9, 47 (1984)
Wu Z., Predissociation of the Cs2 (E) state, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 81, 4433 (1984)
Amiot C., The 3?g electronic state of Cs2, Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 116, 273 (1985)
Balz J.G., Collision-induced photodissociation of Li2 , Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 115, 353 (1985)
Compton R.N., Two-color multiphoton ionization of Xe, J.Opt.Soc.Am. B, vol. 2, 355 (1985)
Davanloo F., Photolytic spectroscopy. 5. Photolysis of Cs2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 82, 4965 (1985)
Kato H., Population of magnetic sublevels of photodissociated atoms, J.Chem.Phys., vol.82, 1642 (1985)
Naqvi A.S., OG spectroscopy of two-photon dissociation of Tl2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 82, 2217 (1985)
Niemax K, Spectroscopy using thermionic diode detectors, Appl.Phys. B, vol. 38, 147-157 (1985)
Harris A.L., Nanosecond IR tunable pulses by stimulated Raman-scattering, Appl.Opt., vol. 26, 3996 (1987)
Amiot C., High-resolution Fourier and laser spectroscopy of Cs2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 88, 5265-5281 (1988)
Amiot C., The Cs2 1?u electronic state pumped by Ar+ laser lines, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 89, 3993 (1988)
Clark B.K., Wave mixing and amplified emission in K and Na-K vapors, Appl.Phys. B, vol. 47, 159 (1988)
Yokoyama K., A study of the D1?u - X1?g band system of Cs2, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 89, 1209 (1988)
Demtröder W., High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Physics of Ionized Gases, Nova Science (1989)
Diemer U., Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy of Cs2, Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 164, 419 (1989)
Bieniak B., Decay of Cs2 excited by blue laser-light pulses, Acta Phys.Pol. A., vol. 78, 305 (1990)
Suemitsu H., Two-photon ionization of Cs2 in the range 530-620 nm, J.Phys.Soc.Jpn, vol. 59, 1981 (1990)
Bieniak B., Lifetime of Cs2 excited by laser-pulses at 476.5 nm, Phys.Lett. A, vol. 152, 47 (1991)
Diemer U., Infrared Cs laser based on optical-pumping of Cs2 , Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 176, 135 (1991)
Kato H., Doppler-free high-resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 94, 2600 (1991)
Bieniak B., Lifetime of selectively excited molecular-levels, Ann.Phys.(Leipzig), vol. 48, 15 (1991)
Julienne P.S., Cold collisions of alkali atoms, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 44, 4464-4485 (1991)
Bouchiat M.A., From linear amplification to superradiance, J.Phys. II (Paris), vol. 2, 727-747 (1992)
Sasso A., Radiative lifetimes and quenching of Cs 5Dj levels, Phys.Rev. A, vol. 45, 1670 (1992)
Bhale G.L., Radiative lifetimes of the 2?g states of Cs2 , Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 188, 376 (1992)
Tamir Y., Windows in saturated metal vapor absorption experiments, Rev.Sci.Instr., vol.63, 1834 (1992)
Naqvi A.S., Hybrid transitions in Na2 by laser-absorption spectroscopy, Opt.Comm., vol. 87, 36 (1992)
Bouchiat M.A., Photoionization of Cs and photodissociation of Cs2 , Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 199, 85 (1992)
Bouchiat M.A., Measurement of the radiative lifetime of the Cs 5D5/2 level, Zs.Phys. D, vol. 24, 335 (1992)
Bouchiat M.A., Photodissoc. of Cs2 and photoioniz. of 5D5/2 atoms, Zs.Phys. D, vol. 25, 145 (1993)
Bouchiat C., Two-photon ionization of Cs2 around 540 nm , Zs.Phys. D, vol. 27, 333 (1993)
Kim B.S., Quantum interference in the predissociation of Cs2 , J.Chem.Phys., vol. 99, 1433 (1993)
Rodriguez G., Vibrational wave-packets in the C1?u state of Cs2, Chem.Phys.Lett., vol. 205, 371 (1993)
Kato H., The level Cs2 D1?u (v, j) and effects of magnetic-field, J.Chem.Phys., vol. 98, 6684 (1993)
Bieniak B., Spectral studies of green Cs2 fluorescence, Acta Phys. Pol. A, vol. 84, 229-246 (1993)
Suemitsu H., Multiphoton ionization of Cs2 in the range 620-670 nm, J.Phys.Soc.Jpn., vol.62, 3425 (1993)
Bouchiat M.A., Laser Cs photoionization and charge separation, Opt.Comm., vol.104, 157 (1993)
Clark B.K., Coherent emissions in K vapor via hybrid pump transitions, Opt. Comm., vol. 108, 121 (1994)
Kato H., Dynamics of excited molecules - predissociation, Chem. Rev., vol. 95, 2311-2349 (1995)
Rodriguez G., Vibrational wave packets in the Cs2 : Two color pump, J.Chem.Phys., vol.103, 10473 (1995)
Kim B., Molecular resonances observed in the predissociation of Cs2, Laser Chem., vol. 16, 19 (1995)
Lee S., Photofragments in OH photodissociation, J. Chem. Phys., vol. 104, 1912 (1996)
Matsubara K., Spectroscopy of Cs predissociated from Cs2 D1?u , Bull.Chem.Soc.Jpn., vol. 69, 2839 (1996)
Braun M., Photoionization from thermally hot samples: Cs2 , Z. Phys. D, vol. 39, 301 (1997)
Sitnikov M.G., Stimulated IR emission in optically pumped Cs vapour, Quant. El., vol. 30, 221 (2000)

15. PHOTOLYTIC SPECTROSCOPY OF SIMPLE MOLECULES, PART III: THE SELECTIVE PHOTOLYSIS OF CsKr AND Cs2Kr AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS, C.B.Collins, F.W.Lee, H.Golnabi, F.Davanloo, P.A.Vicharelli, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Journal of Chemical Physics, 75, 4852-4862 (1981); STATE-SELECTIVE PHOTOLYSIS OF Cs2 AND CsKr , Bull.Am.Phys.Soc., 26, 727 (1981); STATE-SELECTIVE PHOTOLYSIS OF CsKr AND Cs2Kr , Bull.Am.Phys.Soc., 27, 113 (1982)

6 citations:

Davanloo F., J.Chem.Phys., vol.77, 5455 (1982)
Collins C.B., J.Phys.(Paris), vol.44, 395 (1983)
Davanloo F., J.Chem.Phys., vol.82, 4965 (1985)
Naqvi A.S., Opt.Commun., vol.55, 61 (1985)
Ochkin V.N., Usp.Fiz.Nauk, vol.148, 473 (1986)
Barbieri B., Rev.Mod.Phys., vol.62, 603 (1990)

16. SELECTIVE PHOTOLYSIS AND PHOTOIONIZATION OF ALKALI METAL DIMERS, C.B. Collins, F.W. Lee, P.A. Vicharelli, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, American Chemical Society Symposium Series on "Metal Bonding and Interactions in High Temperature Systems", 179, 19 (1982)
 
 

PAPERS IN ROMANIAN ACADEMY JOURNALS

01R. ON THE LOW VOLTAGE ARC MODE IN THERMIONIC  CONVERTERS, I.-Iovitz Popescu and Denisa Popescu, Rev.Roum.Phys., 11, 725 (1966)

1 citation:

Kondratiev F.V., Sov.Atomic Energy, vol.24, 679 (1968)

02R. ON THE OPTIMUM ADDED NOBLE GAS PRESSURE IN CESIUM THERMIONIC DIODES, G.Musa, Denisa Popescu, and Alexandra Baltog, Rev.Roum.Phys., 13, 73-80 (1968)

03R. TWO-PHOTON IONIZATION OF THE Cs2  MOLECULE, Denisa Popescu, Rev.Roum.Phys., 15, 859-863 (1970)

04R. SPECTROSCOPIE  DE  MARE  REZOLUTIE  CU   LASERI   ACORDABILI, I.-Iovitz Popescu, Denisa Popescu, C.Stanciulescu, R.Bobulescu and M.A.Bratescu, Analele Universitatii Bucuresti, 25, 27 (1976),

05R. A PLANE PARALLEL PLATES NITROGEN LASER, C.Stanciulescu, R.Bobulescu, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Rev.Roum.Phys., 24, 301 (1979)

1 citation:

Kunabenc. R.S., Progr.Quantum Electron., vol.9, 259 (1984)

06R. A NEW METHOD IN ATOMIC LASER SPECTROSCOPY OF SPUTTERED METALS, R.Bobulescu, C.Stanciulescu, Ani Surmeian, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Rev.Roum.Phys., 24, 311 (1979)

1 citation:

Barbieri B., Rev.Mod.Phys., vol.62, 603 (1990)

07R. TUNABLE LASER QUANTITATIVE ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF SPUTTERED URANIUM ATOMS IN THE HOLLOW CATHODE  GLOW  DISCHARGE, Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, R.Bobulescu, and Ani Surmeian, Rev.Roum.Phys., 24, 773 (1979)

1 citation:

La Fontaine A.C., J.Phys. B, vol.20, 6649 (1987)

08R. OPTOGALVANIC LASER SPECTROSCOPY OF THERMIONIC AND HOLLOW CATHODE PLASMAS OF ALKALI, RARE GAS AND URANIUM, Denisa Popescu, R.Bobulescu, C.Stanciulescu, Ani Surmeian, I.-Iovitz Popescu, and C.B.Collins, Rev.Roum.Phys., 25, 711-781 (1980)

12 citations:

Burakov V.S., Plasma conductance under selective excitation, Dokl. AN Belarusi, vol. 25, 981 (1981)
Richter J., Thermionic diode – laser spectroscopy, Trends in Quant.El., Bucharest, vol. 2, 375-394 (1983)
Camus P., Atomic Spectroscopy with OG Detection, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 87-106 (1983)
Camus P., Bibliography of OG spectroscopy, J. Phys. (Paris), vol. 44, 513-530 (1983)
Pendrill R.L., OG studies of a Ne glow-discharge in magnetic-fields, Phys.Scr., vol.27, 306 (1983)
Iova I., Spectroscopy and lasers (Roum.), Tipografia Univ. Bucuresti (1984)
Tataru E., The plasma response to perturbations (Roum.), Stud. Cerc. Fiz., vol. 37, 356-378 (1985)
Toader E.I., The OG effect in plasma, Rev.Roum.Phys., vol. 32, 1059 (1987)
Barbieri B., OG spectroscopy, Rev.Mod.Phys., vol. 62, 603-644 (1990)
Shaheen N.M., Influence of discharge and laser beam on OG spectra, Rev.Roum.Phys., vol.36, 403 (1991)
Shaheen N.M., Influence of discharge and laser-beam on OG spectra, Czech. J. Phys., vol. 43, 1107 (1993)
Bratescu M.A., OG effect in Penning mixtures, Ann. Univ. Iasi, vol. 40-42, 69-88 (1994-1996)

09R. HERTZIAN AND OPTICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY, PART I, C.Stanciulescu, R.Bobulescu, Ani Surmeian, Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, and C.B.Collins, Rev.Roum.Phys., 25, 783 (1980)

4 citations:

Richter J., Proc.Int.Conf.Trends Quant.El., Buch., 2-375 (1982)
Rao G.N., Hyper.Inter., vol.38, 539 (1987)
Rebel H., LASERSPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES, Singapore (1989)
Barbieri B., Rev.Mod.Phys., vol.62, 603 (1990)

10R. HERTZIAN AND OPTICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY, PART II, C.Stanciulescu, R.Bobulescu, Ani Surmeian, Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, and C.B.Collins, Rev.Roum.Phys., 25, 915 (1980)

5 citations:

Rao G.N., Hyper.Inter., vol.38, 539 (1987)
Jackson P.E., Appl.Phys. B, vol.47, 149 (1988)
Rebel H., LASERSPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES, Singapore (1989)
Pearson G.N., IEEE J.Quantum Electron., vol.25, 245 (1989)
Barbieri B., Rev.Mod.Phys., vol.62, 603 (1990)

11R. TWO PHOTON OPTICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY, R.Bobulescu, C.Stanciulescu, Ani Surmeian, Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, and C.B.Collins, Rev.Roum.Phys., 25, 927 (1980)

1 citation:

Barbieri B., Rev.Mod.Phys., vol.62, 603 (1990)

12R. PROGRESS REPORT ON THERMIONIC ENERGY CONVERSION AT THE CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS, G.Musa, Alexandrina Popescu, Alexandra Baltog, Denisa Popescu, I.Mustata, Ligia Nastase, N. Niculescu, Alexandra Cormos, Analele Academiei Romane, Memoriile Sectiunilor Stiintifice, tom IV, nr.1, pp.73-152 (1981); REVIEW PAPER ON THERMIONIC ENERGY CONVERSION RESEARCHES AT IFTAR, Preprint IFTAR, P.P.1.1977, pp.1-57 (1977)

13R. THE CW DYE LASER DESIGN FOR INTRACAVITY SPECTROSCOPY, Denisa Popescu, N.Manolescu, Ani Surmeian, R.C.Bobulescu, and C.Stanciulescu, Rev.Roum.Phys., 27, 617-619 (1982)
 
 

PAPERS IN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

01P. A CAESIUM-NOBLE GAS FILLED THERMIONIC DIODE WITH AUXILIARY DISCHARGE, E.Badareu, G.Musa, Denisa Popescu, and Alexandra Baltog, Proceedings of the VII-th International Conference on Ionization Phenomena in Gases, Belgrade 1965, 384-387 (1965)

02P. ON THE CESIUM-NOBLE GAS FILLED PLASMA DIODE, G.Musa, Denisa Popescu, and Alexandra Baltog, Proceedings of the VIII-th International Conference on Ionization Phenomena in Gases, Vienna 1967, 147-150 (1967)

03P. STEPWISE EXCITATION AND IONIZATION OF CESIUM VAPORS, Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, and J.Richter, Proceedings of the IX-th International Conference on Ionization Phenomena in Gases, Bucharest 1969, p. 22 (1969)

04P. THE IMPORTANCE OF HYBRID RESONANCES IN THE MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF CESIUM AND RUBIDIUM, Denisa Popescu, C.B.Collins, B.W.Johnson, S.M.Curry, M.Y.Mirza, M.A.Chellehmalzadeh, J.A.Anderson, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the 26-th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Madison, Wisconsin 1973

05P. MULTIPHOTON EXCITATION OF ATOMIC RUBIDIUM WITH A TUNABLE DYE LASER, C.B.Collins, S.M.Curry, B.W.Johnson, M.Y.Mirza, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the 27-th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Houston, Texas 1974

06P. FINE AND HYPERFINE STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS OF TWO-PHOTON TRANSITIONS IN ATOMIC CESIUM WITH A TUNABLE DYE LASER, S.M.Curry, C.B.Collins, T.W.Hänsch, S.A.Lee, Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, and A.L.Schawlow (recipient Nobel Prize in Physics, 1981), Proceedings of the VI-th Annual Meeting of the Division of Electron and Atomic Physics, Chicago, Illinois 1974, Bull.Am.Phys.Soc., 19, 1198 (1974)

07P. MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION THROUGH DISSOCIATIVE MOLECULAR STATES, C.B.Collins, S.M.Curry, M.Y.Mirza, B.W.Johnson, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the IX-th International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions, Seattle, Washington 1975

08P. MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF Cs2 DIMERS THROUGH DISSOCIATIVE MOLECULAR STATES, J.A.Anderson, C.B.Collins, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the 30-th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Palo Alto, California 1977

09P. MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION THROUGH DISSOCIATIVE MOLECULAR STATES, J.A.Anderson, M.A.Chellehmalzadeh, M.E.Koch, C.B.Collins, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the International Conference on Multiphoton Processes, Rochester 1977, p.225 (1977)

1 citation:

Eberly J.H., Multiphoton Bibliography, NBS LP-92 (1979)

10P. MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF Cs2 DIMERS THROUGH DISSOCIATIVE MOLECULAR STATES, J.A.Anderson, C.B.Collins, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the 31-th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Buffalo, New York 1978

11P. A MULTIPHOTON TECHNIQUE FOR THE DISSOCIATIVE SPECTROSCOPY OF SIMPLE MOLECULES, C.B.Collins, J.A.Anderson, F.W.Lee, P.A.Vicharelli, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '79, Orlando, Florida 1979, edited by V.J.Corcoran, S.T.S. Press, McLean, VA, pp.185-189 (1980)

12P. MULTIPHOTON TECHNIQUE FOR DISSOCIATIVE SPECTROSCOPY OF SIMPLE MOLECULES, C.B.Collins, F.W.Lee, J.A.Anderson, P.A.Vicharelli, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the 11-th International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Massachusetts 1980, Jour. Optical Society of America, 70, 628 (1980)

13P. C.B.Collins, F.W.Lee, H.Golnabi, P.A.Vicharelli, F.Davanloo, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '80, edited by C.B.Collins, S.T.S. Press, McLean, VA, pp.741-747 (1981)

14P. P.A.Vicharelli, C.B.Collins, F.W.Lee, H.Golnabi, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '80, edited by C.B.Collins, S.T.S. Press, McLean, VA, pp.748- 753 (1981)

15P. MODELING OF OPTICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY, W.M.Tepfenhart, C.B.Collins, Denisa Popescu, I.-Iovitz Popescu, and C. Stanciulescu, Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81, New Orleans, Louisiana 1981, edited by C.B.Collins, S.T.S. Press, McLean, VA (1981)

16P. STATE-SELECTIVE PHOTOLYSIS OF Cs2 AND CsKr , C.B.Collins, F.W.Lee, H.Golnabi, F.Davanloo, O.Vicharelli, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the 33-rd Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Norman, Oklahoma 1980, Bull.Am.Phys.Soc., 26, 727 (1981)

17P. STATE-SELECTIVE PHOTOLYSIS OF CsKr AND Cs2Kr , C.B.Collins, F.W.Lee, H.Golnabi, F.Davanloo, P.Vicharelli, Denisa Popescu, and I.-Iovitz Popescu, Proceedings of the 34-th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Boston, Massachusetts 1981, Bull.Am.Phys.Soc., 27, 113 (1982)
 
 

LIST OF FOREIGN CITING BOOKS

1. B. M. Smirnov, ASIMPTOTICHESKIE METODY V TEORII ATOMNYH STOLKNOVENIJ, Atomizdat, Moskva, pp.50, 167, 203 (1973)

2. B. M. Smirnov, IONY I VOZBUZHDENNYE ATOMY V PLAZME, Atomizdat, Moskva, p.218 (1974)

3. H. Walther, ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY WITH LASERS, in LASER SPECTROSCOPY OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES, edited by H.Walther, Springer, Berlin, pp.35, 36 (1976)

4. N. Bloembergen, M. D. Levenson, DOPPLER-FREE TWO-PHOTON ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY, Chap.8, page 315 in HIGH-RESOLUTION LASER SPECTROSCOPY, edited by K.Shimoda, Topics in Applied Physics, 13, Springer, Berlin, p.347 (1976)

5. R. S. Berry, TWO-PHOTON PROCESSES, Chap.44, page 559 in ELECTRON AND PHOTON INTERACTIONS WITH ATOMS, Festschrift for Professor Ugo Fano, edited by H.Kleinpoppen and M.R.C.McDowell, Plenum Press, New York, p.560 (1976)

6. A. M. Prokhorov, opening paper, page 5, and J.J.Wynne, page 217 in MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES, Proc.Int.Conf. on Multiphoton Processes, Rochester, USA, June 1977, edited by G.Mainfray, J.Eberly and P.Lambropoulos, Wiley Interscience, New York (1978)

7. P. Esherick, J. J. Wynne, J. A. Armstrong, MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION SPECTROSCOPY OF THE ALKALINE EARTHS, page 170 in LASER SPECTROSCOPY III, edited by J.L.Hall and J.L.Carlsten, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 7, Springer, Berlin, p.171 (1977)

8. D. Phillips, GAS-PHASE PHOTOPROCESSES, in PHOTOCHEMISTRY, A SPECIALIST PERIODICAL REPORT, 8, Chap.3, page 105, edited by D.Brycesmith, Chemical Society, London, p.142 (1977)

9. C. G. Morgan, LASER-INDUCED ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN OF GASES, Chap.9, page 717 in ELECTRICAL BREKDOWN OF GASES, edited by J.M.Meek and J.D.Craggs, Wiley Series in Plasma Physics, Wiley & Sons, Chichester, p.732 (1978)

10. S. A. Edelstein, T. F. Gallagher, RYDBERG ATOMS, page 365 in ADVANCES IN ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 14, edited by D.R.Bates and B.Bederson, Academic Press, New York, pp.371-372 (1978)

11. S. Haroche, HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY IN ATOMIC RYDBERG STATES, page 151 in COHERENCE IN SPECTROSCOPY AND MODERN PHYSICS, NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series B, 37, edited by F.T.Arecchi, R.Bonifacio and M.O.Scully, Plenum Press, New York, p.159 (1978)

12. R. Devonshire, SPECTROSCOPIC AND THEORETICAL ASPECTS, Chap.1, page 3 in PHOTOCHEMISTRY, A SPECIALIST PERIODICAL REPORT, 9, edited by D.Brycesmith, Chemical Society, London, p.27 (1978)

13. N. B. Delone, V. P. Krajnov, ATOM V SIL’NOM SVETOVOM POLE, Atomizdat, Moskva, pp.128, 144, 153, 154 and Fig.7.6 (1978)

14. P. Bräunlich, MULTIPHOTON SPECTROSCOPY, Chap.19, page 777 in PROGRESS IN ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, Part B, edited by W.Hanle and H.Kleinpoppen, Physics of Atoms and Molecules, Plenum Press, New York, p.808 (1979)

15. E. P. Ippen, page 185 in QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, Part B, edited by C.L.Tang, Methods of Experimental Physics, 15, Part B, Academic Press, New York (1979)

16. T. F. George, page 253 in CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF LASERS, 4, edited by C.B.Moore, Academic Press, New York (1979)

17. G. Grynberg, page 111 in COHERENT NONLINEAR OPTICS, Topics in Current Physics,  edited by M.S.Feld ans V.S.Letokhov, Springer, Berlin (1980)

18. E. Giacobino, B. Cagnac, DOPPLER-FREE MULTIPHOTON SPECTROSCOPY,
in PROGRESS IN OPTICS, 17, page 85 , edited by E.Wolf, North- Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, p.128 (1980)

19. CIAMDA, COMPUTER INDEX TO ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR COLLISION DATA RELEVANT TO FUSION RESEARCH, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Reference Numbers 408, 6972, 8169, 8196, 9839, 9928, 10195, 10382, 11514, 11515, 11693, 12039, 12683 (1980), and 965 (1987)

20. S. Feneuille, P. Jacquinot, ATOMIC RYDBERG STATES, page 99 in ADVANCES IN ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 17, edited by D.R.Bates and B.Bederson, Academic Press, New York, pp.109, 116, 117 (1981)

21. J. C. Travis, J. R. DeVoe, THE OPTOGALVANIC EFFECT, page 93 in LASERS IN CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, edited by G.M.Hieftje, J.C.Travis, F.E.Lytle, Contemporary Instrumentation and Analysis, Humana Press, Clifton, New Jersey, pp.95,96 (1981)

22. B. P. Stoicheff, D. C. Thompson, E. Weinberger, BROADENING AND SHIFT OF HIGH RYDBERG STATES MEASURED BY DOPPLER-FREE TWO-PHOTON SPECTROSCOPY, page 1071 in SPECTRAL LINE SHAPES, edited by B.Wende, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, p.1073 (1981)

23. K. Niemax, K.-H. Weber, BROADENING AND SHIFT MEASUREMENT OF DOPPLER-FREE TWO-PHOTON LINES WITH THE THERMIONIC DIODE, page 1083 in SPECTRAL LINE SHAPES, edited by B.Wende, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp.1083, 1084, 1085, 1090,1091 (1981)

24. M. Raab, W. Demtroeder, DOUBLE-RESONANCE POLARIZATION  SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CESIUM DIMER, page 126 in LASER SPECTROSCOPY V, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 30, edited by A.R.W.McKellar, T.Oka and B.P.Stoicheff, Springer, Berlin, p.128 (1981)

25. J. M. Hollas, HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY, Butterworths, London, pp.561, 563 (1982)

26. K. Niemax, THE THERMIONIC DIODE, page 333 in THE PHYSICS OF IONIZED GASES, Invited Lectures, Review Reports and Progress Reports of SPIG-82, edited by G.Pichler, Institute of Physics of the University, Zagreb, pp.334, 340, 341, 343, 348 (1982)

27. B. M. Smirnov, VOZBUZHDENNYE ATOMY, Energoizdat, Moskva, pp.176, 223 (1982)

28. J. C. Miller, R. N. Compton, MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION AND THIRD- HARMONIC GENERATION IN ATOMS AND MOLECULES, page 133 in PHOTOPHYSICS AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN THE VACUUM ULTRAVIOLET, NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series C, 142, edited by S.P.McGlynn, G.L.Findley and R.H.Huebner, D.Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, pp.135, 134, 141, 152 (1985)

29. J. A. C. Gallas, G. Leuchs, H. Walther, H. Figger, RYDBERG ATOMS: HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY AND RADIATION INTERACTION, page 413 in ADVANCES IN ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 20, pp.419, 429 (1985)

30. V. S. Letokhov, LAZERNAJA FOTO-IONIZATSIONNAJA SPEKTROSKOPIJA,
Nayka, Moskva, pp.16, 100, 302, 306 (1987)

31. W. Demtroeder, LASER SPECTROSCOPY, Basic Concepts and Instrumentation, Springer, Berlin, pp.397,442 (1988)

32. W. Demtroeder et al., HIGH RESOLUTION LASER SPECTROSCOPY OF MOLECULES AND IONS, page 415 in THE PHYSICS OF IONIZED GASES, edited by L.Tanovic, N.Konjevic, N.Tanovic, Nova Science Publ., New York, pp.416,417, fig.1 (1989)

33. H. Rebel, LASERSPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF NUCLEAR STRUCTURE, page 223 in RECENT ADVANCES IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS, edited by M.Petrovici and N.V.Zamfir, World Scientific, Singapore, pp.242,243 (1989)

34. B. Cagnac, DOPPLER-FREE MULTIPHOTON SPECTROSCOPY: APPLICATIONS TO HYDROGEN AND RYDBERG CONSTANT, page 27 in LASERS - PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS, edited by A.Y.Spasov, World Scientific, Singapore, p.27 (1989)

35. J. C. Miller, D. B. Smith, PICOSECOND MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR CLUSTERS, page 283 in MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES, Proc. 5th Int.Conf.on Multiphoton Processes, Paris, 1990, edited by G.Mainfray and P.Agostini, CEA, Saclay, pp.283, 284 (1990)
 
 

CITATIONS BY NOBEL LAUREATES:

BLOEMBERGEN, PROKHOROV, SCHAWLOW

T. W. Hänsch, K. C. Harvey, G. Meisel, A. L. Schawlow (1981 Nobel Prize in Physics for laser spectroscopy), Two-photon spectroscopy of Na 3S-4D without Doppler broadening using a cw dye laser, Opt.Commun., vol. 11, 50 (1974). Page 50: "Two-photon transitions have been investigated theoretically as early as 1929 [cit. papers of Maria Goeppert-Meyer (1929, 1931)]. Experimental observations in the visible have become possible, however, only since the advent of strong laser sources [cit.our paper [05], C. B. Collins et al., Phys. Rev. A, vol. 8, 2197 (1973)]. …We believe that our experiment is the first demonstration of the extremely high resolution obtainable by this phenomenon [Foot Note: Very recently we learned that Levenson and Bloembergen at Harvard have also observed two-photon transitions without Doppler broadening. They observed the Na 3S-5S transition, using a nitrogen-laser-pumped pulsed dye laser]... Our experiment opens the way to numerous interesting spectroscopic studies of atoms and molecules. The new technique complements the methods of laser saturation spectroscopy and is particularly attractive because it allows us to study forbidden lines and to reach high lying states at twice the laser photon energy. It vastly extends the number of atoms and molecules which can be studied with high resolution, using CW dye lasers of limited tuning range."

NOTE: In the same year (1974) we presented a joint report with Professor Schawlow [06P]: Fine and hyperfine structure measurements of two photon transitions in atomic cesium with a tunable dye laser, S. M. Curry, C. B. Collins, T. W. Hänsch, S. A. Lee, Denisa Popescu, I.-I. Popescu and A. L. Schawlow (1981 Nobel Prize in Physics for laser spectroscopy), Sixth Annual Meeting of the Division of Electron and Atomic Physics, Chicago, Illinois, 1974, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 19, 1198 (1974), having the following abstract: "Observations have been made of the fine and hyperfine structure of two photon transitions in atomic cesium excited by a nitrogen laser pumped narrow-band dye laser [cit. T. W. Hänsch, Appl.Optics, vol.11, 895 (1972)] and detected by a space charge limited cesium vapor photodiode [cit. our paper [04], Denisa Popescu et al., Phys.Rev. A, vol.8, 1666 (1973)]. Transitions have been observed from the 6S ground state to selected higher lying nS Rydberg levels up to n=14 and nD levels to n=19. Line strength ratios of the fine and hyperfine structure components have been measured and compared with theoretical predictions."

N. Bloembergen (1981 Nobel Prize in Physics for laser spectroscopy), M. D. Levenson, Doppler-Free Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy, Chap.8, page 315 in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, ed. K. Shimoda, Topics in Applied Physics, vol. 13, Springer, Berlin (1976). Page 347: "Detection Techniques. ...While the technology of quantum detection is quite advanced, situations do occur when it cannot be used. One can imagine cases where the dominant decay route for an excited state does not involve the radiation of any detectable quantum. In these situations, detection techniques developed for other purposes can be applied to Doppler-free multi-quantum spectroscopy. One well-developed technique of this sort relies upon photoionization of an excited species. Photoionization is quite likely to occur in multi-quantum absorption experiments in any case. The ion produced can be detected with high efficiency in space charge ionization diode, or by a secondary emission electron multiplier [cit our paper [04], Denisa Popescu et al., Phys. Rev. A, vol. 8, 1666 (1973); also Marr and Wherrett (1972), Cagnac et al. (1973), Hotop et al. (1973)]. The required electrodes must be designed into the optical absorption cell, but the outputs of these detection devices have many of the same characteristics as quantum detectors."

M. Prokhorov (1964 Nobel Prize in Physics for Quantum Electronics), Preface, Proc. Int. Conf. on Multiphoton Processes, Rochester, USA, June 1977, editors G. Mainfray, J. Eberly, and P. Lambropoulos, Wiley Interscience, New York (1978). Page 5 of the Preface: "In the case of resonance, of greatest importance are perturbations of the resonance state associated with induced bound-bound and bound-free transitions. As for ionization, resonance is interesting because of a sudden increase in the cross-section. The upsurge of interest devoted to this phenomenon is attributed however, to its applicability in diagnostics of the atomic spectrum. One of the possibilities here is to use rather weak fields where the perturbation of the resonance state is less than its natural width. Under such conditions, by varying the light frequency and by observing the resonant increase of ion emission, one can perform detailed spectroscopic studies of highly-excited atomic states. The possibilities opened up by this method - the so called resonance ionization spectroscopy - are evident from a series of works by Collins, Popescu and their collaborators [cit. our paper [06], Denisa Popescu et al., Phys. Rev. A, vol. 9, 1182 (1974)]."

D. R. Lyons, A. L. Schawlow (1981 Nobel Prize in Physics for laser spectroscopy), G. Y. Yan, Doppler-free radiofrequency optogalvanic spectroscopy, Opt. Commun., vol. 38, 35 (1981). Page 35: "Regenerative detectors have long been employed to detect small impedance changes, particularly for measuring phenomena such as nuclear magnetic and nuclear quadrupole resonances (Schawlow 1954). Any oscillator automatically adjusts its level of oscillation so that losses are just balanced by the regenerative amplification. If the losses are increased slightly, the oscillator amplitude is correspondingly decreased, and this produces an observable change in the oscillator anode current. ...Regenerative detection has been reported for Doppler-broadened lines by Stanciulescu et al. [cit.our paper [11], C. Stanciulescu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 37, 888 (1980)]. Radio-frequency oscillators have the advantage that they can maintain discharges at low pressures, minimizing pressure broadening. Electrodeless radiofrequency discharges are particularly suitable for spectroscopy of scarce or corrosive gases. In our experiment, we have used a Colpitts regenerative oscillator with a triode 6A4F (fig.1)."

NOTE: It follows the description of the circuit diagram of the oscillator used for excitation and optogalvanic detection, which is essentially the same Colpitts oscillator circuit used for the first time in optogalvanic laser spectroscopy in our previous (1980) papers [11 and 09R-11R].

G. P. Morgan, A. L. Schawlow (1981 Nobel Prize in Physics for laser spectroscopy, 1981), Two-photon resonances in a sodium-potassium mixed alkali vapor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 3, 1033 (1986). Pages 1034-1036: "Two-photon hybrid resonances in K vapor. During the piecewise search for Doppler-free cw two-photon transitions in Na-K, five strong Doppler-broadened UV signals were observed at laser wavelengths corresponding to excited-state 4P-7S and 4P-5D transitions in atomic K. The strongest transition observed, corresponding to the 4 P-7 S transition in K, is presented in Fig. 3. The Doppler width of 1.5 GHz at 430 K (Dn =1.2 GHz; K vapor pressure is 5 mTorr) is comparable with that observed for one-photon transitions in atomic K, but it could be pressure broadened to 2.7 GHz by increasing the temperature to 570 K (Dn =1.4 GHz, p=300 mTorr). A Lamb dip was observed, indicating that the transition is saturated. The observed transitions along with the corresponding excited-state absorption frequencies in K are listed in Table 3. It it believed that these signals are due to hybrid resonances similar to those first reported by Collins et al. [cit. our paper [07], C. B. Collins et al., Phys. Rev. A, vol. 10, 813 (1974)], who detected multiphoton ionization of Cs through photolysis of Cs2 . …We believe that we are the first to observe these hybrid transitions in K vapor by using a narrow-band cw dye laser and optical detection techniques. Figure 4 (Excitation and fluorescence channels for hybrid resonances in K vapor) presents the steps involved in the two-step absorption process. One photon is absorbed by the dimer K2 , exciting it to a dissociating state 100-200 cm above the A- and B-state dissociation limits. This produces an excited 4P atom that subsequently absorbs a second photon to the 5D or 7S atomic state. The excited atom can relax to the 5P or 6P level, which then can decay to the ground 4S state, emitting UV light at 4044 and 3447 Å, respectively. ...IR laser emission in K vapor pumped with a pulsed dye laser at 6911 and 6939 Å has been reported by Wang et al. (1984) in which the excitation process is also by two-photon hybrid resonances. The first photon excites K2 dimers to highly excited vibrational levels in the A and B states that are below the dissociation limit. This is followed by collisional transfer of the excitation to the 4P levels of a K atom, which is subsequently excited to the 6S level by the second photon. Similar IR laser emission is to be expected for the hybrid resonances reported here."

G. Y. Yan, K. I. Fujii, A. L. Schawlow (1981 Nobel Prize in Physics for laser spectroscopy, 1981), Relaxation-oscillator detection of optogalvanic spectra, Opt. Lett., vol.15, 142 (1990). Page 142: "In optogalvanic spectroscopy, the electrical impedance of a gas discharge is altered when it is illuminated by light from laser tuned to one of the wavelengths emitted or absorbed by the gas [cit. our paper [11], C. Stanciulescu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 38, 888 (1980); also the papers with A. L. Schawlow’s co-authorship, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 42, 1046 (1979), Opt. Lett., vol. 4, 230 (1979), and Opt. Commun., vol. 38, 35, (1981)]. This occurs because the optical excitation alters the population of excited atomic states, which are more easily ionized to provide current-carrying free electrons, the closer they are to the ionization limit [cit. again our paper [11], C. Stanciulescu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 38, 888 (1980)]."